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2 axes of 6-Stage Theory of “Turning Differences into Value”

6-Stage Theory of “Turning Differences into Value” is based on learning theory and adjustment theory.

Definition of roles of managers for adaptive learning and generative learning

Organization learning can be divided into 2 categories: adaptive learning (passive learning that remains within the scope of specific job duties, rules, and structural controls within an existing paradigm) and generative learning (active learning accompanying paradigm changes and future-oriented creation). The roles required of managers differ greatly for each type of learning. The roles are thus defined as follows.

Role of managers in adaptive learning

A management approach. Issues that have already been exposed are further clarified through discussion. The maximum efficiency, rationality, and benefit are pursued through hierarchies and systems and the strongest results are sought. Managers take the stance of teaching subordinates. Highly objective indicators and results are used for evaluation.


Role of managers in adaptive learning

A supportive approach. Potential issues are given further clarification through dialogue. Creative approaches and solutions are the top objective and highly valued. This is achieved through and facilitated by in-house personnel and corporate culture. The best results are sought. Managers take the stance of coaching subordinates, and highly subjective actions and processes are used for evaluation.

Definition of roles of managers for formal adjustment and social adjustment

For both adaptive learning and generative learning, the approach when promoting learning is called “adjustment”. Personnel systems that target an entire company shall be referred to as “formal adjustment” and norms such as behavior that is required at a workplace shall be referred to as “social adjustment”. In 6-Stage Theory, formal adjustment is defined as “standardization and documentation for systems that defines the rules and standards regarding the knowledge, behavior, and output that is expected of an individual in order to be a member of an organization”. Social adjustment is defines as “An individual’s ability to share the values of an organization through education, rituals, customs, and human interaction; thus creating a situation in which acceptance is obtained.

Roles of line managers for formal adjustment

Line managers have individuals conform to standards and systems, including rules for various types of procedures. This includes elements related to human resource management, such as: recruitment, utilization, evaluation, compensation, treatment, human resource development, and benefits. The human resource department makes plans regarding measures targeting the company overall, while line managers handle implementation.

Roles of line managers for social adjustment

Line managers share values that are necessary for being a member of the organization through education, rituals, customs, and human interaction. This creates an environment that promotes the acceptance of individuals. The human resource department sometimes oversees in-house events targeting the entire company, while line managers basically serve as the implementers of such events and mainly carry out their roles through OJT.

The overview and characteristics of 6-Stage Theory of “Turning Differences into Value”

※Cultures are patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting, which are collectively shared with people who are within the same social environment. There are layers of cultural level like national, regional, ethnic, religious, linguistic, gender, generation and social class. In Six-Stage Theory employees whose cultural levels are different from the organization are defined as “cross-cultural employees”.

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